Imagine two micrographs side-by-side, one of a transistor from an Intel 286 microprocessor from 1982 and one of a transistor from the brains of the latest smartphone. While they appear quite similar, the new one is 100 times smaller.But conventional transistor scaling is reaching its limits. Beyond the 22nm technology node – sometime in the middle of this decade – traditional two-dimensional, or planar, transistors may be a thing of the past. To continue the incredible advances in speed, battery life and cost, the technology must change. Two new approaches are being considered: three-dimensional transistors and enhancements to planar transistors.I recently attended a forum that Applied Materials hosted in San Francisco where a panel of experts debated the relative merits of these approaches. Speaking to an audience of over 200 technologists, the panel included experts from leading chip companies: GlobalFoundries, IBM, Qualcomm, Samsung and STMicroelectronics and was moderated by Professor Yuan Taur from U.C. San Diego.